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Wrinkles and lines treatment

What causes wrinkles and lines?

Your skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis (outermost layer), the dermis (second layer) and the hypodermis (the deepest layer). As we age the supportive components of our skin, such as the elastin and collagen fibres, get destroyed slowly. Our skin becomes thinner, drier and less elastic and starts to sag. Wrinkles begin to develop in the areas such as the forehead and around the eyes and lips.

A wrinkle is a fold or crease in the skin. Wrinkles – also called rhytids – can be classified into three types: fine lines, medium wrinkles and deep wrinkles. Fine lines develop because of changes in the epidermis layer. Medium wrinkles extend into the middle layer, and the deep wrinkles – also called furrows or folds – extend into the deepest layer.

Ageing, frequent sun exposure and smoking can increase wrinkling of the skin. Skin wrinkling can be minimised by avoiding excessive sun exposure, using daily sunscreen and wearing protective clothing, quitting smoking and by enjoying a healthy, nutritious diet. Several topical creams and cosmetic techniques are available to combat wrinkles, while wrinkles identified early are easily treated through chemical peels or laser resurfacing.

Chemical peeling: Chemical peeling causes an even, controlled shedding of several layers of damaged cells. This exposes a new, fresh layer of skin with a more even colour and a smoother texture. Additionally, the chemical peel stimulates new cells to grow, thereby tightening the skin and decreasing wrinkles. There are three types of peels: light, medium and deep peels. Light peels reduce the pore size and improve the texture of the damaged skin. Medium peels generally penetrate the deeper layers of the skin to remove deep wrinkles and pre-cancerous lesions. Deep peels treat the deepest layers of skin and skin damage. When the old skin has peeled off, a new layer of skin with a smoother texture and more even colour is revealed.

Laser resurfacing: Laser skin resurfacing helps to rejuvenate the skin and is used to treat wrinkles, blemishes, acne scars, lines around the eyes and mouth, brown spots and sun-damaged skin. It can generally be used for all skin types. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Erbium (Er:YAG) lasers are commonly used for laser resurfacing. CO2 lasers help in tightening the skin, whereas Er:YAG lasers help in resurfacing the skin. The laser light is absorbed by water present in the skin cells and immediately causes vaporisation of the top layers of the skin. When the laser light passes over the skin, a mere 30 millionth of an inch of tissue is removed at a time. This allows the physician to treat only as deeply as needed, from removing wrinkles to merely refreshing overall skin appearance. After removing the damaged skin, new skin quickly regrows in its place.

Facelift: Facelift surgery can be used to treat the visible signs of ageing such as sagging, drooping and wrinkling of the face and neck. A facelift can be performed in conjunction with nose reshaping, a forehead lift or eyelid surgery. Your surgeon may remove and lift some of the fatty tissue underlying the skin; the skin is pulled and the loose skin is removed; and the underlying muscle and fascia are tightened. Excess body fat and sagging jowls are removed by suction using special equipment. The wound is then closed with sutures.

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